Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose
The first thing you do when you see a lesion in the orbit, is to decide whether it is an ocular lesion or a non-ocular lesion, i. If it is a non-ocular lesion, the next question is whether the lesion is Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose within the intraconal space, i. Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose will first describe the anatomic spaces of the orbit and summarize the pathology within these spaces, even if some of these pathologies are not visible radiologically.
Then we will discuss the radiological findings in certain orbital diseases. Anterior chamber When we move from anterior to posterior the first area is the anterior chamber. It is bounded by the cornea anteriorly and the lens and iris posteriorly.
Posterior chamber This is a very Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose area posterior to the iris, which we cannot discern on imaging. Specific pathologies in this area are: The vitreous body is surrounded by the membranes of the retina, Behandlung von Krampfadern der Gebärmutter Vorbereitungen choroid and the Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose. Intraconal space The ocular muscles within the orbit form a muscle-cone.
These ocular muscles are connected via the annulus of Zin, which is a fibrous connective tissue sheet and together they form the conal space. Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose separates the intraconal from the extraconal space. Intra-orbital pathology which is non-ocular is either in the intraconal, conal or extraconal space. Conal space The conal space is formed by the ocular muscles and an envelope of fascia.
Orbital appendages The lacrimal gland is located superolaterally in the orbit. Diseases of the lacrimal gland can be divided into Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose, glandular Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose developmental see Table.
Secretions go medially across the globe and are collected in the punctum and then go into the lacrimal sac. From the Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose sac secretions travel inferiorly to the nasal lacrimal duct, which drains under the inferior terminate into the nose. In children Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose obstructions of the valves in the lacrimal duct can lead to cystic areas Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose in the orbit also known as dacryocystoceles.
In adults obstruction is more often due to strictures from ethmoid sinusitis or stones blocking the nasolacrimal duct. This will result in epiphera Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose increased tearing. Drainage can be improved with balloon dilatation. In adults the most common intraorbital calcifications occur at the Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose insertion of the ocular muscles.
Other common calcifications are at the optic nerve head within the eye, also called 'optic disc drusen'. These are Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose asymptomatic, but when the ophtomologist inspects Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose eye, there is the impression of papilledema, i.
In children calcifications in the globe means retinoblastoma until proven otherwise even if it is bilateral. As you can see in the table on the left, retinoblastoma is a one of the more common tumor in the first year Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose life. The other tumors in this age group are neuroblastoma, Wilm's tumor, leukemia and teratoma. All bilateral cases are hereditary and http://die-distel-online.de/redafabo/behandlung-von-thrombose-im-unteren.php from Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose deficient tumor suppression gene on chromosome The diseases that are listed in the differential diagnosis are all uncommon.
On the left images are of a Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose month old female with bilateral lesions as a result of bilateral retinoblastoma. Small retinoblastomas are treated with Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose kinds of therapy cryoablation, laser photocoagulation, chemothermotherapy, brachytherapy, plaque radiotherapy in order to save the eye and avoid enucleation.
In order of frequency: These patients are also at risk for pineal tumors and parasellar PNETs. The pineal gland is considered as the third eye and the third testicle.
Meaning, you can Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose retinoblastoma in the pineal gland, i. Always examine the Geschwüren in Rotlauf, trophischen in these patients and remember that at the age of years, which is the peak age for retinoblastoma, the pineal gland does not calcify, so any calcification in this region is suspicious of retinoblastoma.
On the left images are of another patient with retinoblastoma. This Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose presents as a large calcification. When a retinoblastoma occupies more than half of the globe, as in this case, the eye Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose to be enucleated.
Leukocoria Usually, when a light shines through the iris, the retina appears red to the observer. In leukocoria white pupil the retina abnormally appears white. Retinablastoma is usually detected through leukocoria as it occurs in two third of patients with retinoblastoma.
These children are usually too young to present with visual complaints. There are many causes of leukocoria as listed in the table on the left.
Number two is metastases and others like hemangioma, leiomyoma and osteoma are uncommon. On the left another cause of leukocoria. This is persistent hyperplastic primary vitrous PHPV. There is a persistent hyaloid canal when the hyaloid artery does not integrate.
On the images we see a persistent canal that goes from the optic nerve to the lens. PHPV is the second most common cause of leukocoria. These patients also develop glaucoma and cataract. Coats' disease is a rare eye disorder of unknown cause, leading to full or partial blindness, characterized more info abnormal development of blood vessels behind the retina.
On the left images of a patient who presented in the ER with post-traumatic orbital swelling. This patient has learn more here rupture and specifically rupture of the anterior chamber. As radiologists we are used to looking at the vitreous body if we think of globe rupture, but Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose is not enough.
Notice that the depth of the anterior chamber is decreased. There is increased density anteriorly as a result of hyphema blood in the more info chamber. Also notice that the lens on the right side is blurred and slightly less dense. This is called a traumatic cataract. Maybe you would have expected the lens to be more dense, but that is usually not the case. On the left CT images of a patient Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose had a left eye trauma.
Study the images for 5 findings and then continue reading. Retinal detachment can be distinguished from choroidal detachment, because the retinal epithelium ends at the ora serrata figure. Evidently a retinal detachment will not go beneath this point. Retinal detachment with haemorrhage is seen mostly in adults with diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
In young infants it can be seen as part of a shaken baby syndrome. In choroidal detachment recent Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose surgery is the most common association followed by trauma. On the far left a CT of a choroidal detachment going beyond ten and see more o'clock with Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose lens at twlve o'clock and evidently more anteriorly to the ora serrata.
It looks as Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose the detachment ends at the link nerve but, if you look carefully, the choroidal detachment actually crosses the optic nerve.
That would be very unusual for a Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose detachment, but is sometimes seen in choroidal detachment. On the right a T1WI of a retinal Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose. It ends Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose the optic nerve and Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose the ora serrata.
Coloboma is a congenital malformation in which part of the eye does not form due to failure of fusion of an embryonic structure called the intraocular fissure. Often there is microphtalmia Ingolstadt Lieferung Varikosette the eye protrudes inferiorly.
The patient on the left had a learn more here and also agenesis of the corpus callosum with an associated midline lipoma. Devic's syndrome is also known neuromyelitis optica.
Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose first look at the images and then discuss it in more detail. On the left image there is a normal optic nerve on the right side.
Notice that the optic nerve is white matter tract. It has the same signal intensity as the white matter in the brain. On the contralateral side there is high signal intensity in the optic nerve. This is therefore extra-ocular intraconal disease and we will be thinking of neoplastic versus demyelinating diseases. Continue Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose the next image. Notice the abnormal signal intensity and the fact Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose the optic nerve is not Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose, which argues against the possibility of a tumor.
Images of the cervical spinal cord show a long segment of non-space occupying disease. Based on these images the differential diagnosis is MS and Devic's syndrome also caled neuromyelitis optica. Since MS is far more common, this would be the most likely diagnosis, but this happened to be Devic's Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose. On Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose left images of a different patient, who also has optic neuritis.
There is high signal in the optic nerve and in the brain there are multiple lesions as a result of MS. These lesions did not occur at the same time, so there is dissemination in time and in place, which is specific for MS.
On the left images of Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose patient with extra-ocular intraconal disease. First look at the images, describe them and come up with a differential diagnosis for a moment disregard the fact that the title of this paragraph is meningioma.
The optic nerves are normal, but there is abnormal mass-like enhancement of the optic nerve sheath on the left. So this is probably a neoplasm and of the neoplasms meningioma is by far the most common optic nerve Preise für Tabletten von Krampfadern tumor. Meningiomas present with visual disturbances early in the course of the disease as a result of Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose neuropathy due to venous obstruction.
Clinically this presents as a pale disk.
Thrombophlebitis Orbit Differentialdiagnose
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Cavernous venous malformations of the orbit, also known as cavernous haemangiomas, Orbital cavernous venous malformation. Differential diagnosis.
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Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is the formation of a blood clot within the cavernous sinus, a cavity at the base of the brain which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart.
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Sep 13, · Conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis of orbital cellulitis thrombosis without orbital cellulitis will the orbit: duration of.
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As a result, a good understanding of their pathophysiology and clinical presentation is needed to formulate a useful differential diagnosis. Periorbital and Orbital Cellulitis Etiologies, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Presentation: The orbital septum, the anterior reflection of the periosteum of the orbital wall onto the tarsal plate of the eyelid, divides .
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The diseases that are listed in the differential diagnosis are the differential diagnosis is pseudotumor of the orbit. to venous thrombosis of the.